Diamond / Dorjpalam, Diamond /

The word diamond comes from the Greek word "adamas" invincible. It is insoluble in acids and alkalis, and is caused by the high pressure and temperature of the magma, as well as Cemberlit. The simplest chemical structure of precious stones is diamond-crystalline carbon. This stone is the most valuable and hardest mineral in the world. Its hardness is 10 on the Mohs scale. The value of a diamond depends on the weight of the stone. A maximum of 3-4 carats will be mined from 1 ton of ore. 1 carat diamond can cost up to $ 10,000 depending on the quality. Diamond-rich countries include Australia, the Union of South Africa, Russia, Brazil, Congo, Namibia, Angola and Tanzania.

Emerald / Emerald /

Emeralds are called "smargados" and are derived from the ancient Greek word meaning green. The gemstone is beryllium (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) and has a green color due to certain compounds of chromium and vanadium oxide and has a hardness of 7.5-8 on the Mohs scale. It is very rare for emeralds not to crack, and almost all emeralds are repaired to increase clarity. The value of emeralds lies in their deep green color, and recently colorless beryllium has been multiplied by synthetic hydrothermal methods to produce artificial emeralds. Colombia is the world's largest emerald producer. It alone supplies 50–95% of the world's emeralds. A rare emerald called trapiche, known for its hexagonal black coal alloys, has been found in Colombia.


Ruby is derived from the Latin word meaning red. This gemstone is made of alumina (Al2O3: Cr) but becomes red, reddish-pink, or violet under the influence of chromium. It is one of the hardest gemstones with a hardness of 9 in the Mohs scale, and originated in syenite, pegmatite, and high-grade metamorphic rocks, and occurs in placer deposits. Large, high-quality rubies are sometimes more expensive than diamonds. Today, the world market sells high-quality rubies weighing 0.5-1.0 carats for 500-4000 USD. $ 300-3000 if slightly lower quality. $ 85-250 for a darker color. dollars. Ruby deposits are very rare in the world, and vary in size in Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. The main ruby ​​deposit is located in northern Burma, and only about 1% of the total ruby ​​mined meets the requirements for precious stones. Rubies are found in very small quantities. The world's largest ruby ​​was found in Burma and weighed 400 carats.


The origin of the name Indraanil is unknown, it is derived from the Latin version of the Greek word sapphirus, a similar word found in Persian and Old Hebrew. Blue corundum has long been called sapphire. This gemstone is made of alumina (Al2O3) is a grade 1 gemstone. Available in translucent, blue-pink to indigo-blue. It is one of the hardest gemstones with a hardness of 9, similar to ruby, and is found in syenite, pegmatite, and high-grade metamorphic rocks of the same origin. Major sapphire deposits are located in Burma, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam, Thailand, India and Australia.


Pearls are a type of gemstone, but they are also an organic product. Pearls are made from live snails or oysters. When a foreign body enters a wound, the foreign body is covered with a hard white tissue, and this process is repeated, and the white tissue enlarges to form pearls. White pearls are composed of aragonite (calcium carbonate aggregate) and conchiolin (corneal substance). Pearls are classified as marine or freshwater, depending on their origin, and are divided into natural and artificial, depending on how they are formed. The extraction of natural pearls has become very rare in recent years. Because in order to find a single real pearl, you have to break the shells out of thousands of worms and kill them. Therefore, people prefer to extract pearls themselves. The process is almost the same as in nature. The only difference is that people themselves insert foreign bodies into the shell. One pearl is formed in 2-7 years. It can't be fixed or made shiny. Be careful with pearls. The most economical use is said to be 150 years old. But the 200-year-old pearl turns black and becomes unrecognizable.